Born for success
„...Úgy lesz az emberiség bármi
kis népe is erős, nagy és halhatatlan,
ha az értelem szózatját követi...”
"...However small a people of the
human race, so will it become strong,
big, and immortal, if it will follow
the appeal of reason..."
© Katalin Tihanyi
14 june 2017
Az ifjú Tihanyi Kálmán a Pozsonyi Elektrotechnikai Szakiskolában komoly alapozásra tett szert a mérnöki tudományok terén, amint ezt naplója és korai találmányai tanúsítják. Tanulmányait befejezve és érettségijét abszolválva az első világháború második évében, 1915-ben, önkéntesként jelentkezett katonai szolgálatra. Ennek kapcsán a jelek szerint másfél évet meghaladó képzésben vett részt, minden valószínűség szerint a Ludovikán, mely előkészítette őt a katonai szolgálatra. Ennek befejeztével a Hadtörténeti Levéltár és Irattárban őrzött dokumentumok szerint 1917. január 1-jén tartalékos tisztjelölt lett a tüzérségnél, a 4. honvéd ágyúsezrednél.
Mint felderítő zászlós ő és hattagú csapata bevetésük után néhány hónappal a bronz vitézségi éremben részesültek az Ojtoz-völgyi csatában az ellenséggel szemben tanúsított „bátor magatartásukért”. Tihanyi maga ezt követően új területen, mint rádiómérnök folytathatta szolgálatát Polában, a Monarchia hadikikötőjének rádióállomásán. 1917. november 1-ei dátummal hadnagyi rangban részesült.
Egy feljegyzése szerint már a frontszolgálat során „a támadások közötti nagy csendben” is a televízióra gondolt. Kétségtelen, ez volt az a távoli cél, amely mindenek előtt foglalkoztatta.
A háború végén hazatérve – sokrétű feltalálói tevékenysége mellett – a televízió addig feltalált megoldásait feltérképezve, egyértelművé váltak számára a feladat kihívásai, és az a tény, hogy a valódi televízió egyedül a tudomány legújabb eredményeire alapozva lesz megvalósítható. Ezek megismerésére hét évet áldozott.
A korábbi megoldások szakszerű áttekintését és saját, akkorra már kiforrott terveit első ízben egy Az elektromos távolbavetítés címen megjelent cikkében, a Nemzeti Újság 1925. május 3. számának 23. oldalán ismertette a nagy nyilvánosság előtt.
Tihanyi terveivel megalapozta a modern televíziókészülék technológiáját. Miközben igyekezett tőkeerős támogatókat találni ügyének, tovább dolgozott a találmányain. Később számos további szabadalmat nyújtott be. Ezek között megtalálható az infravörös kamera, a plazmatévé és a falra akasztható síkképernyős televízió is.
Találmányai későbbi felhasználásával kapcsolatban kétségek is gyötörhették. Jól mutatja ezt a hagyatékában található 1939-ből való Húsvéti imája.
Te elképzelhetetlen Valami, nagy Hatalom
talán az Energia képében, ne engedd hogy
terjedjen az a tévhit hogy mi, az élőlények,
csak anyagból vagyunk. Pusztítsd ki a nagyképű
hülyéket kik azért mert a biológiai laboratóriu-
mokban kikutatták az élőlények központját az u.n.
Organizátort ezt arra magyarázzák, hogy csak
anyag van s nincs Lélek. Ennél megdöbbentőbb
borzalmasabb tudatot csak büntetésként küldhetnél
az Értelmeseknek de Te azt nem teszed mert
jó vagy. Jó oly értelemben ahogy azt mi soha
felfogni nem tudjuk.
Hiszen Te adtad a kis és nagy Organizá-
toroknak az életet melyet nem hagysz belőlük
elpusztítani addig míg ki nem élték magukat,
addig míg nem teljesítették kötelességüket.
Hiába pusztítják, irtják, morzsolják Őket, az Organi-
zátorokat, tovább „élnek” és a hozzájuk illő szervezetet fejlesztik,
növesztik, tökéletesítik. Elpusztítani nem engeded a
lelket belőlük míg a nekik rendelt életet
legalább is meg nem kezdték, legalább is
át nem terjesztik az emberi test, növény, bacilus, bogár
Mutasd meg tovább, könyörgöm, hogy a magban,
embryoban talált Organizátorban nem az anyag
hanem a Lélek a fontos.
Kell hogy ez a Lélek Tőled származzon!
Te, ezeknek az apró biológiai „Organizátor”-oknak a
nagy Organizátora engedd meg hogy mi a
Lélek kisugárzását az Észt ne arra használjuk
hogy Lelkeket öljünk ki milliószámra az anyagból.
Engedd meg, könyörgöm, hogy legalább a hozzánk
legrokonabb Anyagot, a másik embert kíméljük.
Pusztitsd el a politikusokat kik öldöklő
fegyvereket gyártanak, jaj milliószámra, s nem keresik,
csak ordítják, a Békét.
Ma jó voltam. Félretettem egy aranyszárnyú
bogarat a gyalogútról hogy el ne tapossák. Megcsókol-
tam egy fatörzset mert gyönyörű rügyet hozott
De mi lesz holnap?
(Berlin, 1939. április)
Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Kézirattár, Letéti hagyaték
Az alábbiakban „A hét dokumentuma” sorozatunkban rendhagyó módon nem magyar, hanem idegen nyelvű cikket közlünk: Tihanyi Kálmán lányának, Tihanyi Katalinnak angol nyelvű cikkét, valamint a szabadalom főbb pontjainak fordítását. A szerzőnek ezúton is köszönetet mondunk az elküldött anyagért és a fordításért.
A találmány szabadalmi bejelentése – a magyar dokumentumok közül elsőként – 2001-ben bekerült a Memory of the World Register-be.
The Hungarian patent application entitled Radioskop was filed by Kalman Tihanyi physicist, electrical engineer and inventor on March 20, 1926. Presented in English translation on the occasion of this year's double anniversary are Excerpts of the original Hungarian application. For the benefit of science, we are making available to all the description of the most important parts of this seminal patent application, as well as its entire original claims section. The original Hungarian patent application documents were inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World on September 4, 2001.
A Radioskop tervrajza
Jelzet: MNL OL, Polgári kori, kormányhatósági levéltárak, Iparügyi minisztériumi levéltár, Szabadalmi Bíróság (K 603), T-3768
Tihanyi, who in one of his many notes described the television system he invented as “his favorite child”, began to think seriously at around 20 years of age about working out, one day, the solutions to the collection of fundamental problems involved in creating a device, which would really stand up to the dream, and deserve the name of a "movie in the home".
He knew all too well that there were many before him who had attacked the problems involved over the close to 50 years since the first concrete ideas were presented to build a device, which would copy the human eye. An eye, which would not only see, but record pictures and recreate them on some screen or other. He had attended the excellent School of Electrotechnical Studies in Pozsony (today Bratislava, Slovakia), then part of Hungary, and after graduation -- as in the meantime WWI had broken out --, went on to study the military sciences and artillery. As a cadet, he was sent to the front in early 1917.
In late 1918, when he returned home already a second lieutenant of the artillery with one military invention, which received distinction, and another one sold to the military authorities, he knew that, besides inventing things and surviving to see them realized, he wanted nothing else but to study, most of all, study physics. To prepare for the enormous task he set for himself, for the work that he had to master. The distant goal had to do with television...
The 1926 patent application did not stop developing after it had been filed. While taking care of public relation to generate interest in his invention, Tihanyi continued working on it, perfecting it. The first leap forward came as a set of ideas he developed during October 22-23, the next giant leap occurred in November of 1926. He documented these last new solutions in a vatiety of executions that he then submitted to the Radioskop patent application as Drawing No. 10.
At this point he knew that he had far surpassed the original Radioskop application, even though it represented the fundamental building blocks to modern television.
In the course of lobbying to assure financial support for the experiments and laboratory space to build a prototype, he worked out the final details of the camera and receiving tube designs. A trip to Vienna the following year, the favorable reception there of his plans, and most of all, a letter of recommendation to Prof. Fritz Schröter, chief of research at the Telefunken company in Berlin, would soon open up the world to him.
He went on to file patent applications for television related inventions in 1928, 1929, 1935, 1937 and 1939. All except the last one, as shown by the patent-drawings, a flat-screen plasma-type television, which could be hung on the wall, were sold to and developed for mass production by manufacturers such as Loewe, Fernseh AG, and RCA. His infrared television camera, patented in 1929 with 1928 priority, enjoyed a long carrier in both military and civil applications.
Hungarian Patent Application T-3768, filed March 20, 1926
HUNGARIAN NATIONAL ARCHIVES
Excerpts from the English translation
Color television. Page 52-54, 56-57, and 64 of translation (original pp. 31-34, and 37)
The picture transmission in color (“Chromo Radioskop”) can be realized through some modification of the above outlined bar bundle system.
To accomplish this, three different luminescent substances are applied to each individual insulated bar, each luminescing in a different primary color. Thus, each bar is divided into three sections, and the charging cathode beam k (Fig. 2, 4) is deflected to the bar section whose frontal luminescence has to be suppressed or decreased, according to the picture element color obtained at the same position of the transmitting station.
[As stated above, the cathode beam k charges the capacity bar to a negative voltage, so that it suppresses the negative electrons of the initial condition which produces the luminescence. In case of the system according to Drawing V, Fig. 38, 40, however, the ionizing beam introducing the positive charges from the grid is to be directed to the bar section where luminescence of the bar face is desired.]
This partial deflection of the cathode beam to the individual bar sections will be accomplished with the picture control electromagnets - m - as well, specifically with one of them, the magnet - n - (see Fig. 36) [which will consequently derive its control from the rotating disc - 89 - through W2, W3 oscillation carrying elements] as follows:
The transmitting station will be provided with a separate, so called “color-control Radioskop”, which, in accordance with the picture element colors obtained, adds smaller/greater current impulses to the magnet control currents i2 of the disc - 89 - (Fig. 35), that in turn directs the charging cathode beam of the receiving tube according to the colors to the corresponding bar section. With the cathode beam deflected horizontally (transversely to the diagram’s plane) by this magnet - n -, the bars are divided vertically (their cross-section shows three vertical rectangles laying next to one another), and the charging cathode beam has a cross-section so small that it impinges on only one rectangle at a time. If the color control “Radioskop” does not supply added current, the cathode beam, shifted by one bar row through the resistor stage of the disc - 89 -, as described above, impinges on only the first bar section. If, however, the color control “Radioskop” adds to the current i2, then, as a result, the charging cathode beam is moved to the second or third bar section.
The color control “Radioskop” tube has an identical structure with that illustrated in Fig. 1 (where, the bars are not divided into sections), the difference being that the bars are designed for such small capacities that they will be charged up to their photoelectric cut-off voltage during the picture repetition time T even at smaller light intensities, and thus receive only the photoelectric voltages corresponding to the colors. In accordance with the methods already described, these bar voltages feed, through the grid G, appropriate anode currents to the amplifying vacuum tubes. [The addition of these color-controlled anode currents to the current pulses i2 can occur either through inductive coupling (e.g. by means of a transmission coil placed next to the coil - p -), or through direct coupling.]
Consequently, these currents corresponding to the photoelectric voltage values, added to the currents i2 with the control magnets - n - of the receiver direct the charging cathode beam to the bar section giving the appropriate color, more precisely, to the bar section where the unneeded colors are to be suppressed.
(…) cont. on page 56 §3-4(orig. page 33 § 5, cont. on page 34)
The transmission in natural colors can be accomplished through other methods then described above: by the projection of a light beam onto a simple white foundation through rotation of the plane of polarization (as shown on Drawing VII) in conjunction with the system (according to Drawing VI) featuring transmission by picture lines.
Compared to the picture element based transmission, picture line based transmission – involving transmission of picture gradations – has the advantage that here entire lines of the image to be transmitted influences the light sensitive alkali metal layer of the transmitter simultaneously, respectively entire picture lines will be visible at the receiving station. The number of picture lines being lower in each picture, more time will be available for the transmission of each picture line.
(…) cont. on page 57 (orig. page 34 § 1, 3-4, and related note)
According to the system, the picture line falls onto an alkali metal covered cathode strip, from which the electrons are projected in a narrow line. In Fig. 48 and 50, in the specially shaped vacuum tube - A - is the anode, - K - the cathode strip, while - k - the cathode beam line (in Fig. 50, shown axonometrically), and - F - is a metal collector electrode, which conveys the negative charge derived from the incident cathode beam section impinging upon it to grid - 44 - of the amplifying tube.
Under the influence of the varying photoelectric effect representing individual areas of different light energies in the picture line striking the cathode strip -K - the cathode beam energy will also vary; that is, from place to place cathode beams of varying intensity or velocity are excited according to the light detail arriving from the cathode strip - K -. Should the whole beam strip - k - be brought simultaneously into contact with the metal electrode - F -, then it would relay an average voltage to the grid - 44 -; our goal is, however, that the collector plate - F - relay separately the varying voltages obtainable from the different energy sections inherent in the beam strip - k - to the grid - 44 -. To this end, then, the individual details - h - should be released only one by one from the beam strip - k - to the plate - F -. This can be done with magnetic, but more suitably with electric fields.*
*[The deflection of photoelectric cathode beams of very low velocity can also be accomplished with electric fields of lower energy.]
(…) cont. on page 64 § 4 (orig. page 37, last paragraph)
Although, this latter system does not yield as simple an executional form as the completely
simplified “Radioskop” tube according to Drawings I and V containing all necessary parts and will therefore not be suitable for amateur purposes, nevertheless, it can be used within the framework of other, larger systems, especially for television of natural colors.
Patent Claims. Page 65-72 of translation (original pp. 38-43)
1. Electronic television system comprising means at both the transmitting and the receiving station for storing the electric energies of individual picture elements, respective for the extension of the projection time of the individual picture elements, characterized by bundled bars (or the like) of appropriate capacity being insulated from one another, the number of bars being equal to the necessary total picture elements or, in the case of group-based picture transmission, to the number of picture elements in one group.
2. Electronic television system comprising means at the receiving station for the extension of the projection time of picture elements controlled by the picture element current impulses derived from the transmitter, characterized by a luminescent substance transiting into phosphorescence (e.g. applied onto the light screen in layers), for the reception of the light beam necessary to produce picture elements, and having a phosphorescence time of preferably shorter duration than the projection time of the entire picture.
3. Device as claimed in claim 1 for transmitting stations, characterized by the fact that the face of the capacity bars is coated with some substance that emits electrons under the influence of light (e.g. K, Na, Rb, Ca), or the capacity bar is made entirely respective partially of said substance, with the picture to be transmitted striking the face of the bar bundle.
4. Device as claimed in claim 1 for receiving stations for the extension of the life cycle of the obtained picture elements controlled by picture element current impulses, characterized by an electro luminescent or, optionally, scintillating layer on the front face of said capacity bars, said layer being applied onto said bar faces or onto an insulating base.
5. Device as claimed in claim 4, characterized by a component in front of the luminescent or scintillating layer, said component generating an electron beam (cathode rays, radioactive beta rays in the case of luminescent substance, or alpha rays, in the case of a scintillating substance) impinging on said layer.
6. An executional form of the device as claimed in claims 1 through 5 for very low capacity needs, characterized, instead of capacity bars, by picture element sized metal particles (metal layer, e.g. aluminum foil, subdivided by scratching or other means) resting on some insulating base, said particles, at the transmitting station, developed from electron emissive metal layer and, at the receiving station, from luminescent or scintillating layer with the subdivision of said layers.
7. An executional from of the device as claimed in claims 1, 2, and 4 through 6, characterized by the fact that a substance luminescing in two or more colors is applied onto the screen respective bar faces for the purpose of achieving luminescence in white (with substances luminescing in complementary colors) or producing various colors with substances luminescing in primary or in roughly equivalent colors.
8. An executional form of the device as claimed in claim 7, characterized by said individual picture element sized bars being divided into sections insulated from one another to accommodate various luminescent substances.
9. An executional form of the device as claimed in claims 1, and 3 through 6, characterized by metal inserts situated between and insulated from the capacity bars, as well as a metal envelope surrounding and insulated from the bar bundle, inserts and envelope having a common electric outward lead.
10. Device as claimed in claims 1, and 3 through 9 for transmitting and receiving stations, characterized by an electron beam (cathode ray, beta ray) exploring the rear face of said capacity bars (respective, in the executional form according to claim 6, the layer segments) controlled synchronously at the transmitting and at the receiving station, so that bars (respective layer segments) of identical position are scanned simultaneously.
11. Device as claimed in claims 1, and 3 through 10, characterized by an electrically connected grid placed at the end of said bar bundle (respective adjacent to the capacity layer particles according to claim 6).
12. Device as claimed in claim 11, characterized by the grid being in direct or inductive, respective capacitive coupling with amplifying vacuum tubes, that is, at the transmitter in such circuit where photoelectric charges – i.e. electric energies controlled by these charges – obtained by the bar bundles (respective layer segments) are transferred from the grid of said device to the grid of said vacuum tubes where they accordingly influence the amplified anode current, while at the receiving station the grid is in such circuit where the anode current – i.e. the electric energies controlled by them – of the last amplifying vacuum tube strike said grid of said receiving television device.
13. Device as claimed in claims 1, 3 through 9, and 11 through 12, in an executional form characterized by an ionizing beam (e.g. ultraviolet or radioactive rays) directed through the grid to the end of the bar bundle (respective layer segments) synchronously at the transmitting and at the receiving station, so that bars of identical position are touched simultaneously.
14. Device as claimed in claims 1, and 3 through 13, characterized by components developed at said bar ends, said components producing cathode beam or ionized field, etc., for the discharge – neutralization – of the individual bars, and further characterized by said discharge electrode surface (cathode surface) having a design through which the discharge can occur slowly, suitably during the picture projection time T.
15. Transmitting respective receiving “Radioskop” tube constructed through a combination of the devices claimed in claims 1, and 3 through 14 with respect to its principal components, characterized by a bar bundle (respective the capacity segments according to claim 6) placed in vacuum, a grid behind it, and a cathode (preferably a hot cathode) placed at the end of the vacuum tube, as well as two magnetic fields transverse to one another controlling the cathode beam of said cathode, and, in the case of the receiving tube, further characterized by a component placed before the face of the bar bundle and irradiating the luminescent layer.
16. An executional form of the device as claimed in claims 1, and 3 through 15 for color television, comprising a substance luminescing in different colors, said color television device characterized by a circuit, where, at the transmitting station, the current impulses controlled by photoelectric bar voltages – generated in turn by the individual light wavelengths – are superimposed through an appropriate electric connection over the current impulses controlling the cathode beams (position control), further characterized by the fact that, at the receiving station, the cross section of the charging cathode beam (e.g. - k - in Fig. 2) exploring the bar ends is smaller than the contact ends of the individual bar segments (as per claim 8), further characterized by the fact that, at the transmitting station, said color control currents superimposed on said position control currents are designed (adjusted) to such value as to direct the cathode beam to the bar section whose face carries the substance luminescing in the color corresponding to that of the transmitter’s.
17. An executional form of the device as claimed in claims 1 through 16 for its receiving tube component without capacity bar bundle, characterized by a screen placed in vacuum space and made preferably of a transparent material coated with an electro luminescent (or scintillating) substance, as well as by an electric grid disposed on (e.g. Fig. 13, 43) or behind (e.g. Fig. 12, 42) said screen, and further characterized by a cathode or alpha beam incident on said screen and synchronized to that of the transmitter.
18. An executional form of the picture control device delivering current impulses, in combination with the television system claimed in claims 1 through 17 and any other television system operating with any voltage control component (e.g. ohmic resistor wires or resistor stages imposed on a rotating disc and rendered circuit by contact brushes), characterized by the fact that said voltage control component is in some known (direct or indirect) contact with the grid of the amplifying vacuum tube (or vacuum tube set).
19. Circuit arrangement of picture control devices in combination with the television system claimed in claims 1 through 18 as well as for any other television device where the component delivering picture control current impulses at the transmitting station performs the picture control at both stations via wireless transmission system, said circuit arrangement characterized by the fact that, in a known manner, its current impulses are coupled primarily to the electric oscillator of the transmitting station and that the control current impulse is derived from said oscillator, so that, as a result, the picture control devices both at the transmitting and at the receiving station obtain their completely simultaneous control current impulses by way of said oscillator.
20. Picture control device as claimed in claims 18, 19, characterized by two discs rotating in forced relation with one another, each disc having disposed on its entire circular arc or on several partial circular arcs resistance wires connected from the center of the circular arc to a slider, one of said brushes being supported by said slider and the other by said resistance wire or wires.
21. An executional form of the device as claimed in claim 20 for discontinuous unidirectional or bidirectional scanning, characterized by one or both discs (suitably the one rotating more slowly) being provided with contact stages – substituting the resistance arc or arcs – between which the resistance stages are applied.
22. Picture control device as claimed in claims 18 through 21 in combination with amplifying vacuum tube system for television (“Radioskop”) transmitting respective receiving tube, in an executional form characterized by an arrangement where the charging cathode beam to be deflected is directed to one corner of or beyond the bar bundle (respective of the section groups, as per the executional form in claim 6), to the effect that said charging cathode beam is deflected to the corner of said bar bundle (or section group) by the minimal anode current associated with the linear section of the amplifying vacuum tube (or tube set).
23. An executional form of the devices claimed in claims 1, 3, and 6 through 9 for transmission by picture line – with or without bar row – with cathode strip, characterized by an electric field strip photoelectrically induced by the picture line and transverse to (respective of transverse efficient component, thus oblique to) said cathode strip, or magnetic field strip oblique to said cathode strip, and further characterized by a device, suitably a rotating disc, for controlling said deflecting field strips, as well as by a collector electrode capturing the electron charge of the cathode beam deflected by said field strip.
24. An executional form of the devices claimed in 1 through 23, characterized by a magnetic field having influence over luminescent substances.
25. Transmitting device in combination with the devices claimed in claims 1 through 24, as well as with any other television or telephotographic device, for the transmission of the light of picture elements according to wavelengths (colors), characterized by a coupling, respective anode voltage, of vacuum tubes effecting the connection between optional transmitting and receiving devices, where the bent, non-proportional section of the tube characteristic will fall above the operating range of the grid voltage, in order that the change of the anode current occur at the desirable ratio between the fixed grid voltage limits.
26. An executional form of the device as claimed in claim 25, characterized by such adjustment of the anode voltage of one or more vacuum tubes mounted anywhere between the alkali metal cell or other electron-emissive cell at the transmitting station and the magnetic coil turning the polarization plane of the light beam at the receiver, that will result in the transmission occurring on the quadratic or near-quadratic section of the tube characteristic.
27. Device claimed in claims 1 through 26, characterized by the fact that the capacity bars (e.g. individual bars of a bar row) are each in connection with known grids located between anode and cathode, said sets of cathode, anode and grid being disposed suitably in a single vacuum envelop.
Excerpt from the original translation, as indicated.
Translated by István Illéssy
Edited by Katalin Tihanyi
© by Katalin Tihanyi Glass